Lakes of Africa – lake Victoria, Chad, Tanganyika and other lakes
the Great African lakes — several large lakes in the East African fault zone and around it. Include lake Victoria, the second largest freshwater lake in the world, Tanganyika, second deepest and largest in the world. A list of lakes: Tanganyika, Victoria, albert, Edward, Kivu, and Malawi.
Some among the Great lakes include only lakes Victoria, albert and Edward, as only these three lakes flow in the White Nile. Tanganyika and Kivu flow in the river system of the Congo, and Malawi to the Zambezi via the Shire river.
Tanganyika is a large lake in Central Africa, the coordinates of the Central part is 5°to 30 th. W. 29°30 VD (G).
The volume and depth of lake Tanganyika is the second largest after lake Baikal. The shores of the lake belong to four countries — the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Zambia and Burundi.
The length of the lake is about 650 km, width 40-80 km Area of 34 thousand sq km Lies at an altitude of 773 metres above sea level in the tectonic depression of the East African fault zone.
In the lake there are hippos, crocodiles, lots of waterfowl. Well developed fishing and shipping.
Victoria . Victoria Nyanza, Ukereoue (Victoria, Victoria Nyanza) is a lake in East Africa, in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. Located in a tectonic trough of the East African platform, at a height of 1134 m. the 2nd largest freshwater lake in the world after lake superior the largest lake in Africa.
The area of 68 thousand sq km, a length of 320 km, the maximum width of 275 km. Is part of the Victoria reservoir. A lot of Islands. Abundant river flows into the Kagera, it follows the Victoria Nile. The lake is navigable, the people engaged on it fishing.
North shore crosses the equator. Lake with a maximum depth of 80 m is a sufficiently deep lakes.
In contrast to the deep neighbors, Tanganyika and Nyasa, which lie within a system of gorges of Africa, lake Victoria fills a shallow depression between the Eastern and Western sides of the valley Great gorge. The lake receives a huge amount of water from rain, more than from all their tributaries.
In its waters is found a huge number of crocodiles, and here still lives the lung fish (a fish) that lived about 300 million years ago. It can inhale and hold the air in the gills, as in the lungs. This rare fish is a link between regular fish and land animals.
Malawi (Nyasa) lake in East Central Africa. The lake runs from North to South, a length of 560 km, the depth of 706 m. the Northern and Eastern shores are steep with a poorly developed continental shelf, South and West coast labor. Water losses occur from surface evaporation (80%) and with the waters of the river Sheri arising in the South of the lake. Climate two seasons: the rainy (November — may) and dry (may — November).
Lake Chad (Tchad, Arabic Bar es Salaam) is a closed relict lake is located in Central Africa. Located at an altitude of 240 m above sea level.
The surface of the lake is not constant: commonly occupies about 27 thousand square kilometers, the lake in the rainy season spreads up to 50 thousand and in dry — is reduced to 11 thousand sq. km. To the South the lake is fed by the Chari river with a wide and shallow Delta and Mbulu the West Komadugu-Aube, and from the East — dry Bar-El-ghazal. Nachtigall, the flow of water through the rains and the river is equal to 100 cubic km, and the loss of water through evaporation 70 cubic km Due to the lack of a visible source of water from the lake, whereas the lake water remains fresh, Nachtigal, presupposes the existence of an underground flow in a northeast direction to EGEE and Borca. At mouths of rivers, fresh water in the lake, and in the rest of weakly brackish; marginal salinity is due, probably, the constant change of water in the lake due to groundwater outflow of infiltration water. In a very rainy season (which is extremely rare), with extraordinary high levels of water, in the North-East formed a temporary surface runoff to the lake (on the dry bed of the Bahr-El-ghazal). Dark-colored dirty water of the lake in some places thickly overgrown with algae. From July to November under the influence of rains, the water level gradually rises and low South-West coast is widely filled almost to cook. Considerable space of the lake very finely (it here you can move astride Ford); the great depth of the Western part differs from Gorno and Maduari. The maximum depth during the rainy season — 11 meters. The banks mostly swampy and overgrown with papyrus; to the North-East area has the character of a steppe, and only the southern coast has a rich tropical vegetation.
In the Eastern part of the lake is covered by a network of Islands (up to 100 numbers), group Buduma, Carcass and Smoke populated (up to 30 thousand people) immigrants from neighboring tribes (Buduma, Smoke, Kanembu, Kanuri, Bulala and Data).
In 2006, the lake area of 23 thousand sq. km. situated on the borders of Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon and Republic of Chad has decreased in 26 times and continues to dry that became known through monitoring of the Land undertaken by the international system “Disaster Monitoring Constellation”. It is known that Chad dries up for the seventh time in the last Millennium. Scientists — paleontologists have installed it there was found the remains of animals.
Assal – crater lake in Central Djibouti. The lake lies 155 meters below sea level in the Afar lowlands, it is the lowest point of Africa. The salinity of the lake is 35 %, it is the saltiest lake in the world. The lake is surrounded by dense saline layer of soil. Salt is mined and dispatched by caravan to Ethiopia.